The financial impact of the Covid-19 pandemic is unprecedented and borrowing levels in 2020/21 of 16.9% of GDP represent the highest level of peacetime borrowing. To meet some of this cost, the Chancellor, Rishi Sunak, announced in the 2021 Budget that various thresholds and allowances would remain at their 2021/22 levels until April 2026.
The personal allowance is increased to £12,570 for 2021/22 – an inflationary increase of £70 over the 2020/21 level of £12,500. However, the allowance will remain at this level for 2022/23, 2023/24, 2024/25 and 2025/26. As incomes rise with inflation, people who currently do not pay tax may start to pay tax once their income rises above £12,570.
Income tax rates and bands
The basic rate band is increased to £37,700 for 2021/22. This means that where someone is in receipt of the personal allowance of £12,570, they will start paying higher rate tax once their income exceeds £50,270. This remains the case for tax years up to and including 2025/26.
The basic rate band and higher rate threshold will remain at these levels until April 2026. As incomes rise in line with inflation, more people will pay tax at the higher and the additional rates. Tax is payable at the additional rate of 45% on taxable income in excess of £150,000.
Capital gains tax annual exempt amount
The capital gains tax annual exempt amount remains at £12,300 for 2021/22 and is frozen at this level until April 2026.
However, there may be changes to capital gains tax on the horizon as this is something that the Government are looking at.
The upper earnings limit for Class 1 National Insurance contributions and the upper profits limit for Class 4 contributions are aligned with the rate at which higher rate tax becomes payable. Both are set at £50,270 for 2021/22. For Class 1 purposes, this is equivalent to £967 per week and £4,189 per month. These too will remain unchanged until April 2026.
All other National Insurance thresholds will be reviewed at the appropriate time.
The nil rate band has been frozen at its current level of £325,000 since 2008/09. It will remain at this level up to and including 2025/26. The freezing of the threshold brings more estates within the ambit of inheritance tax.
The residence nil rate band (RNRB) remains at its 2020/21 level of £175,000 for 2021/22. It too will remain at this level for the 2023/24 to 2025/26 years inclusive. The RNRB is reduced where the value of the estate is £2 million or above by £1 for every £2 by which the value of the estate exceeds £2 million.
Pension lifetime allowance
The pension lifetime allowance places a cap on the value of tax relieved pension savings. The tax relief on pension savings in excess of the lifetime allowance is recovered in the form of a 25% tax charge where the excess is taken as a pension and a 55% tax charge where the excess is taken as a lump sum. The lifetime allowance remains at £1,073,100 for 2021/22 and will stay at this level until April 2026. This will limit the ability of anyone with pension savings at or near this level to make further tax-relieved pension contributions during 2021/22 and the following four tax years.
Partner note: Finance (No. 2) Bill 2019—21, cls. 5, 28, 40 and 86.